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Multidimensional inequality has fallen in England but not in Scotland


  • Inequality between poor and non-poor households fell in England over the period 2004 to 2016, but there was no clear reduction in Scotland.
  • Inequality in exposure to air pollution has also fallen in England but again with no significant change in Scotland.
  • Similar trends of falling inequality in England but no significant change in Scotland have been found in relation to access to amenities and housing quality.
  • It is likely that most of these changes are the result of significant decentralisation of poverty in England, which has been less pronounced in Scotland over this period.

Policy implications:

  • These findings emphasise the need to have a holistic approach to tackling multidimensional inequality that takes into account geographical and environmental factors.

Related publication: Unevenness, centralisation of poverty and spatial inequality since Scottish Devolution (in progress)