- An obvious way to reduce the emission of greenhouse gasses is to increase fuel taxes as a way of discouraging diesel and petrol consumption.
- Change in spatial flows of internal trade as a result of raising the cost of fuel have measurable energy justice implications: peripheral regions of the economy, in rural and coastal areas and many city outskirts are most vulnerable, as are petrochemical, agricultural and connected sectors.
- Given that the UK is already one of the most regionally unequal countries in Europe, the effect of further exacerbating regional inequality is a significant and important finding that has major implications for energy policy, not only for the UK but potentially also for developed countries around the world.
- Policy needs to go beyond identifying places and sectors most affected: it is the connections between them that matter most.
- The "push" of a carefully designed fiscal policy (one that is sensitive to spatial effects) needs to be combined with the "pull" of targeted low-carbon intermediate connections.
- This is needed not only to ameliorate the spatial injustice of fuel tax hikes, but also to help make carbon transition more politically acceptable.